The element with an allotrope consisting of 8 atoms
Allotropes of carbon
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Allotropes are two or more forms of the same element in the same physical state solid, liquid, or gas that differ from each other in their physical, and sometimes chemical, properties. The most notable examples of allotropes are found in groups 14, 15, and 16 of the periodic table. Gaseous oxygen , for example, exists in three allotropic forms: monatomic oxygen O , a diatomic molecule O 2 , and in a triatomic molecule known as ozone O 3. A striking example of differing physical properties among allotropes is the case of carbon. Solid carbon exists in two allotropic forms: diamond and graphite.
Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes structurally different forms of the same element due to its valency. Well-known forms of carbon include diamond and graphite. In recent decades, many more allotropes, or forms of carbon, have been discovered and researched including ball shapes such as buckminsterfullerene and sheets such as graphene. Larger scale structures of carbon include nanotubes , nanobuds and nanoribbons. Other unusual forms of carbon exist at very high temperatures or extreme pressures. Diamond is a well known allotrope of carbon.
Allotropes of the same element give rise to identical chemical compounds. For most allotropes, in each form the atoms are arranged differently in space. However, in the case of iron see below the alpha and beta forms differ in the orientation of electronic spin. Allotropy is a specific form of polymorphism, which is the existence of a substance in more than one crystal form. The different crystal structures are known as polymorphs.
Figure 1. Elements that exist as allotropes. Allotropes are different forms of the same element. Different bonding arrangements between atoms result in different structures with different chemical and physical properties. Allotropes occur only with certain elements, in Groups 13 through 16 in the Periodic Table. This distribution of allotropic elements is illustrated in Figure 1.
In chemistry , the term chemical element refers to species, or types, of atoms. An atomic nucleus contains a number of positive elementary charges , named protons. - Carbon is the chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6 contains 6 protons in its nucleus. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalentómaking four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds.
The nonmetals are elements located in the upper right portion of the periodic table. Their properties and behavior are quite different from those of metals on the left side. Under normal conditions, more than half of the nonmetals are gases, one is a liquid, and the rest include some of the softest and hardest of solids. The nonmetals exhibit a rich variety of chemical behaviors. They include the most reactive and least reactive of elements, and they form many different ionic and covalent compounds. This section presents an overview of the properties and chemical behaviors of the nonmetals, as well as the chemistry of specific elements. Many of these nonmetals are important in biological systems.
Allotropy - Some Familiar Examples
Allotropes occur only with certain elements, in Groups 13 through 16 in the Periodic Table. The diamond lattice (Figure 3a) contains tetrahedral carbon atoms in an infinite three-dimensional The structure is very complex, consisting of tubes of The tubes are formed from cagelike P 8 and P 9 groups, linked by P 2 units.
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