In an embryo the skeleton is originally made of

Musculoskeletal System - Bone Development

in an embryo the skeleton is originally made of

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Bone formation , also called ossification , process by which new bone is produced. Ossification begins about the third month of fetal life in humans and is completed by late adolescence. The process takes two general forms, one for compact bone , which makes up roughly 80 percent of the skeleton , and the other for cancellous bone , including parts of the skull, the shoulder blades, and the ends of the long bones. Bone of the first type begins in the embryonic skeleton with a cartilage model, which is gradually replaced by bone. Specialized connective tissue cells called osteoblasts secrete a matrix material called osteoid , a gelatinous substance made up of collagen , a fibrous protein, and mucopolysaccharide, an organic glue. Soon after the osteoid is laid down, inorganic salts are deposited in it to form the hardened material recognized as mineralized bone. The cartilage cells die out and are replaced by osteoblasts clustered in ossification centres.

Early in gestation, a fetus has a cartilaginous skeleton that becomes bone in the gradual process of endochondral ossification. Early in gestation, a fetus has a cartilaginous skeleton from which the long bones and most other bones gradually form throughout development and for years after birth in a process called endochondral ossification. Ossification or osteogenesis is the process of laying new bone material by cells called osteoblasts. Two processes result in the formation of normal, healthy bone tissue. Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying of bone into the primitive connective tissue mesenchyme. This is how the flat bones of the skull and the clavicles are formed. Endochondral ossification involves cartilage as a precursor.

About Translations. The skeleton consists of bone developing from mesoderm , except within the head where neural crest also contributes connective tissues. Each tissue cartilage , bone , and skeletal muscle goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation. The 2 key developmental processes are the initial "patterning" of bone location and then the overt "differentiation" of bone through the process of ossification. For details on specific bone differentiation in human development see Bone Development Timeline. Bone is formed through a lengthy process involving ossification of a cartilage formed from mesenchyme.

In embryos, the skeleton is primarily made of ______, but in the young child most of the ______ has been replaced by________. ______ remains only in.
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About Translations. The mesoderm forms nearly all the connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system. Each tissue cartilage , bone , and muscle goes through many different mechanisms of differentiation. The musculoskeletal system consists of skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage and is mainly mesoderm in origin with some neural crest contribution. The intraembryonic mesoderm can be broken into paraxial, intermediate and lateral mesoderm relative to its midline position. During the 3rd week the paraxial mesoderm undergoes somitogenesis and forms into paired "balls" of somites either side of the neural groove.



Bone formation

The axial skeleton begins to form during early embryonic development. However, growth, remodeling, and ossification bone formation continue for several decades after birth before the adult skeleton is fully formed. Knowledge of the developmental processes that give rise to the skeleton is important for understanding the abnormalities that may arise in skeletal structures.

Earliest evidence of cartilage and bone development in embryonic life.

Two major skeletal systems—the endoskeleton and exoskeleton—are recognized in vertebrate evolution. Here, we propose that these two systems are distinguished primarily by their relative positions, not by differences in embryonic histogenesis or cell lineage of origin. Comparative embryologic analyses have shown that both types of skeleton have changed their mode of histogenesis during evolution. Although exoskeletons were thought to arise exclusively from the neural crest, recent experiments in teleosts have shown that exoskeletons in the trunk are mesodermal in origin. The enameloid and dentine-coated postcranial exoskeleton seen in many vertebrates does not appear to represent an ancestral condition, as previously hypothesized, but rather a derived condition, in which the enameloid and dentine tissues became accreted to bones. Recent data from placoderm fossils are compatible with this scenario. In contrast, the skull contains neural crest-derived bones in its rostral part.

Our understanding of the genetic and molecular control of development in vertebrates has dramatically increased during the last 10 years through the discovery that molecular processes that control development in invertebrates have been conserved during evolution and are also found in vertebrates. Important developmental genes were identified that are not only similar in sequence but also in their molecular function in widely diverged organisms such as C. From Drosophila studies it is now clear that epigenetic development is regulated by cascades of gene expression. Early acting regulatory genes initiate the developmental process and induce the expression of other downstream genes. Phenotypic analysis of Drosophila mutants has allowed identification in the early eighties of more than 50 developmental genes that fall into three broad classes:.

Some aspects of the development of cartilage and bone during embryonic life are discussed in this review and an attempt is made to show that studies of development, even when performed on species far removed from humans, are relevant to clinical orthopedic surgery. Initially, some definitions of skeletal tissues and cells are presented to illustrate the nontrivial problem of how to tell whether cells are capable of becoming osteoblasts or chondroblasts and of depositing bone or cartilage. This leads to a discussion of the best criteria to use to identify differentiating osteogenic and chondrogenic cells.

Early in gestation, a fetus has a cartilaginous skeleton that becomes bone in the bone tissue is created using a cartilage template during fetal development.
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