Why do plants need both a chloroplasts and mitochondria

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

why do plants need both a chloroplasts and mitochondria

chloroplasts and mitochondria

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As semi-autonomous cell organelles that contain only limited coding information in their own DNA, chloroplasts and mitochondria must import the vast majority of their protein constituents from the cytosol. Recent work identified unexpected new functions of 2 DnaJ co-chaperones in mitochondrial and chloroplast protein translocation and suggest a common mechanism of reactive oxygen species ROS scavenging that shall be discussed here. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are thought to have arisen from endosymbiosis and as a consequence of mass gene relocation events lost most of their own DNA during evolution. It was thus far believed that chloroplasts and mitochondria possess unique protein import machineries with little or no common components. Indeed, cpDnaJL was found to accomplish a role as holdase in chloroplasts and etioplasts.

I have been an online writer for over five years. My articles focus primarily on anatomy and cellular biology. Chloroplast and Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of living organisms and perform functions vital for the cell to live. This article will go over the characteristics of these organelles as well as the major differences and similarities of these organelles. Like the mitochondria, the chloroplast has an inner and outer membrane.

Both the chloroplast and the mitochondrion are organelles found in the cells of plants, but only mitochondria are found in animal cells. The function of chloroplasts and mitochondria is to generate energy for the cells in which they live. The structure of both organelle types includes an inner and an outer membrane. The differences in structure for these organelles are found in their machinery for energy conversion. Chloroplasts are where photosynthesis occurs in photoautotrophic organisms like plants. Within the chloroplast is chlorophyll, which captures sunlight.

Chloroplasts are present in photosynthetic plants and is responsible for making the food of the plant. Oxygen is released out from the chlorophyll while making food and this food is used by the plants themselves too. On the other hand, mitochondria also known as the power house of the cell, uses this oxygen in order to create ATP which is used for various purposes like active transport , releasing minerals and many more in plants. It is important to note that plants need both chloroplasts and mitochondria because without one organelle say the mitochondria the entire cell would be unable to carry out its life activities. This is because if there was no mitochondria there would be on oxidative phosphorylation and the cell would have no ATP production and would deplete its ATP reserves very quickly and die. Thus, both organelles are equally important for normal cellular function. Why do plants need both chloroplasts and mitochondria?

Why do plants need both chloroplasts and mitochondria?

Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8

Compare and Contrast: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Overview Cell Membrane Memb. Chloroplasts - Show Me the Green Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell. The organelles are only found in plant cells and some protists such as algae. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. Chloroplasts work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. The entire process is called photosynthesis and it all depends on the little green chlorophyll molecules in each chloroplast.

Many commonalities between chloroplasts and mitochondria exist, thereby suggesting a common origin via a bacterial ancestor capable of enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the dual regulatory targeting of mitochondrial and chloroplast gene expression by mitochondrial transcription termination factor MTERF proteins to promote optimal energy production and oxygen consumption further advances these evolutionary contentions. Interestingly, both types of organelles have been identified in selected animal cells, most notably specialized digestive cells lining the gut of several species of Sacoglossan sea slugs. Termed kleptoplasty or kleptoplastic endosymbiosis, functional chloroplasts from algal food sources are internalized and stored within digestive cells to provide the host with dual energy sources derived from mitochondrial and photosynthetic processes. Recently, the observation of internalized algae within embryonic tissues of the spotted salamander strongly suggest that developmental processes within a vertebrate organism may require photosynthetic endosymbiosis as an internal regulator. The dual presence of mitochondria and functional chloroplasts within specialized animal cells indicates a high degree of biochemical identity, stereoselectivity, and conformational matching that are the likely keys to their functional presence and essential endosymbiotic activities for over 2.

The formation of ATP from the breakdown of glucose is known as cellular respiration. Mitochondria are oval-shaped, double-membrane organelles Figure 1 that have their own ribosomes and DNA. Each membrane is a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. The inner layer has folds called cristae, which increase the surface area of the inner membrane. The area surrounded by the folds is called the mitochondrial matrix.






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